# 1. Basic Assignment operator: 2. Arithmetic operators: 3. Relational Operators: 4. Logical operators: 5. Unary operators 6. Ternary operators 7. Bitwise and Bit Shift Operator 8. Miscellaneous Operators

## operations in c#

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. C# has rich set of built-in operators and provides the following type of operators -

1. Basic assignment Operator

2. Arithmetic Operators

3. Relational Operators

4. Logical Operators

5. Unary Operators

6. Ternary Operators

7. Bitwise Operators

8. Miscellaneous Operators

The description of the above shown operators is as follows:

Basic assignment operator (=) is used to assign values to variables.

Example:

`using System;`

`namespace Operator`
`{`
`     class AssignmentOperator`
`        {`
`               public static void Main(string[] args)`
`               {`
`               int firstNumber, secondNumber;`
`        // Assigning a constant to variable`
`               firstNumber = 10;`
`               Console.WriteLine("First Number = {0}", firstNumber);`
`       // Assigning a variable to another variable`
`               secondNumber = firstNumber;`
`               Console.WriteLine("Second Number = {0}", secondNumber);`
`               }`
`        }`
`}`

Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.

The list of arithmetic operators is shown in the below table,

 Operator Operator Name Example + Addition Operator 6 + 3 evaluates to 9 - Subtraction Operator 10 - 6 evaluates to 4 * Multiplication Operator 4 * 2 evaluates to 8 / Division Operator 10 / 5 evaluates to 2 % Modulo Operator (Remainder) 16 % 3 evaluates to 1

Example:

using System;

namespace Operator{

class ArithmeticOperator{

public static void Main(string[] args)

{

double firstNumber = 14.40, secondNumber = 4.60, result;

int num1 = 26, num2 = 4, rem;

result = firstNumber + secondNumber;

Console.WriteLine("{0} + {1} = {2}", firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

// Subtraction operator

result = firstNumber - secondNumber;

Console.WriteLine("{0} - {1} = {2}", firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

// Multiplication operator

result = firstNumber * secondNumber;

Console.WriteLine("{0} * {1} = {2}", firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

// Division operator

result = firstNumber / secondNumber;

Console.WriteLine("{0} / {1} = {2}", firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

// Modulo operator

rem = num1 % num2;

Console.WriteLine("{0} % {1} = {2}", num1, num2, rem);

}

}

}

 Output: 14.4 + 4.6 = 19 14.4 - 4.6 = 9.8 14.4 * 4.6 = 66.24 14.4 / 4.6 = 3.130434782 26 % 4 = 2

Relational operators are used to check the relationship between two operands. If the relationship is true the result will be true, otherwise it will result in false.

Relational operators are used in decision making and loops.

The types of relational operators are as shown in the below table,

 Operator Operator Name Example == Equal to 6 == 4 evaluates to false > Greater than 3 > -1 evaluates to true < Less than 5 < 3 evaluates to false >= Greater than or equal to 4 >= 4 evaluates to true <= Less than or equal to 5 <= 3 evaluates to false != Not equal to 10 != 2 evaluates to true

Example:

using System;

namespace Operator

{

class RelationalOperator

{

public static void Main(string[] args)

{

bool result;

int firstNumber = 10, secondNumber = 20;

result = (firstNumber==secondNumber);

Console.WriteLine("{0} == {1} returns {2}",firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

result = (firstNumber > secondNumber);

Console.WriteLine("{0} > {1} returns {2}",firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

result = (firstNumber < secondNumber);

Console.WriteLine("{0} < {1} returns {2}",firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

result = (firstNumber >= secondNumber);

Console.WriteLine("{0} >= {1} returns {2}",firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

result = (firstNumber <= secondNumber);

Console.WriteLine("{0} <= {1} returns {2}",firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

result = (firstNumber != secondNumber);

Console.WriteLine("{0} != {1} returns {2}",firstNumber,

secondNumber, result);

}

}

}

Logical operators are used to perform logical operation such as AND, OR.

Logical operators operate on Boolean expressions (TRUE and FALSE) and return Boolean values.

Logical operators are used in Decision Making and Loops.

Here is how the result is evaluated for logical AND and OR operators,

 Operand 1 Operand 2 OR (||) AND (&&) true true true true true false true false false true true false false false false false

In simple words, the table can be summarized as:

• If one of the operand is true, the OR operator will evaluate it to true.
• If one of the operand is false, the AND operator will evaluate it to false.

Example:

`using System;`
` `
`namespace Operator`
`{`
`               class LogicalOperator`
`               {`
`               public static void Main(string[] args)`
`               {`
`               bool result;`
`               int firstNumber = 10, secondNumber = 20;`
`               // OR operator`
`               result = (firstNumber == secondNumber) || (firstNumber > 5);`
`                                              Console.WriteLine(result);`

`               // AND operator`
`               result = (firstNumber == secondNumber) && (firstNumber > 5);`
`               Console.WriteLine(result);`
`                               }`
`               }`
`}`
 Output: True False

The unary operators operate on a single operand.

The Unary operators and their description are given below:

 Operator Operator Name Description + Unary Plus Leaves the sign of operand as it is - Unary Minus Inverts the sign of operand ++ Increment Increment value by 1 -- Decrement Decrement value by 1 ! Logical Negation (Not) Inverts the value of a boolean

Example:

`using System;`
` `
`namespace Operator`
`{`
`               class UnaryOperator`
`               {`
`               public static void Main(string[] args)`
`               {`
`                               int number = 10, result;`
`                               bool flag = true;`

`                               result = +number;`
`                               Console.WriteLine("+number = " + result);`

`                               result = -number;`
`                               Console.WriteLine("-number = " + result);`

`                               result = ++number;`
`                               Console.WriteLine("++number = " + result);`

`                               result = --number;`
`                               Console.WriteLine("--number = " + result);`

`                               Console.WriteLine("!flag = " + (!flag));`
`                   }`
`               }`
`}`

The ternary operator ? : operates on three operands. It is a shorthand for if-then-else statement.

Ternary operator can be used as follows:

 Variable = Condition? Expression : Expression2;

The ternary operator works as follows:

• If the expression stated by Condition is true, the result of Expression is assigned to variable.

• If it is false, the result of Expression2 is assigned to variable.

Example:

`using System;`
` `
`namespace Operator`
`{`
`               class TernaryOperator`
`               {`
`                               public static void Main(string[] args)`
`                               {`
`                                              int number = 10;`
`                                              string result;`

`                                              result = (number % 2 == 0)? "Even Number" : "Odd `
`                     Number";`

`                                              Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1}", number, result);`
`                               }`
`               }`
`}`
 Output: 10 is Even number.

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation.

The description of the bitwise operators is as given in the table,

 Operator Description Example & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) = 12, which is 0000 1100 | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A | B) = 61, which is 0011 1101 ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) = 49, which is 0011 0001 ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) = 61, which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement due to a signed binary number. << Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 = 240, which is 1111 0000 >> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >> 2 = 15, which is 0000 1111

There are few other important operators including sizeof, typeof and ? : supported by C#.

The description of the miscellaneous operators with example is as shown in the below table,

 Operator Description Example sizeof() Returns the size of a data type. sizeof(int), returns 4. typeof() Returns the type of a class. typeof(StreamReader); & Returns the address of an variable. &a; returns actual address of the variable. * Pointer to a variable. *a; creates pointer named 'a' to a variable. ? : Conditional Expression If Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y is Determines whether an object is of a certain type. If( Ford is Car) // checks if Ford is an object of the Car class. as Cast without raising an exception if the cast fails. Object obj = new StringReader("Hello"); StringReader r = obj as StringReader;